Proteins have the unique ability to behave as buffers, compounds that resist extreme shifts in pH. The buffering capacity of proteins is facilitated by their amphoteric nature.
Proteins play a very important role in the browning of foods through two chemical reactions: the Maillard reaction, which does not require an enzyme, and enzymatic browning, which, as the name implies, does.
Capable of acting chemically as either acid or base.
The reaction between a sugar (typically reducing sugars such as glucose/dextrose, fructose, lactose, or maltose) and a protein (specifically the nitrogen in on amino acid), resulting in the formation of brown complexes.
A reaction in which an enzyme acts on a phenolic compound in the presence of oxygen to produce brown-colored products.
The amino groups on the amino acids act as bases (accept 1-1* to yield -NH3*), while the carboxyl groups act as acids (donate Fr to yield —000-). When the amino and carboxyl groups are equally ionized (neutralized), the protein’s isoelectric point is reached. Isoelectric points range between pH 4.5 and 7.0 for most proteins. Each protein has a different isoelectric point, which allows proteins to be separated by electrophoresis, the use of an electrical field to cause proteins to move through a buffered gel.