Maillard Reaction The brown color produced during the heating of many different foods comes, in part, from the Maillard reaction. This reaction contributes to the golden crust of baked products, the browning of meats, and the dark color of roasted coffee. Temperatures most conducive to the Maillard reaction are those reaching at least 194°F (90°C), […]
Category: Chemistry of Food Composition
You are what you eat..! Food and people are composed of the same chemical materials, and there was a time when people serves as nourishment to other animals in the food chain. All food, including people, consist of six basic nutrient groups: water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Food provide varying amounts of nutrients. Milk, for example is 80 percent water, meats serve as primary sources of protein, potatoes and grains are rich in carbohydrates, and nuts are almost all fat. Most food contain a combination of the six major nutrient groups.
Since people literally are what they eat, the main purpose of eating and drinking is to replace those nutrients used up in the body’s maintenance, repair and growth, and to obtain the calories necessary for energy. Calories are like fuel to the body, as gas is fuel to a car. Unlike cars, however, living organisms never shut down, even during sleep. Over half the calories used by the body, about 60 percent, are used soley for vital life functions such as maintaining body temperature, respiration and heartbeat. Another 10 percent is used for digesting and absorbing the nutrient from food, and the remaining 30 percent, depending on the person, is used for physical activity.
Composition of Proteins One key way in which proteins differ from carbohydrates and lipids is that proteins contain nitrogen atoms, while carbohydrates and lipids contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. These nitrogen atoms give the name “amino,” meaning “nitrogen containing.” to the amino acids of which protein is made. Protein molecules resemble linked chains, […]
Composition of Lipids Lipids, like carbohydrates, are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but in differing proportions. One way to determine if a substance is a lipid is to test whether it will dissolve in water. Lipids will not dissolve in water, but can be dissolved in organic solvents not used in food preparation, […]
Buffering Proteins have the unique ability to behave as buffers, compounds that resist extreme shifts in pH. The buffering capacity of proteins is facilitated by their amphoteric nature. Browning Proteins play a very important role in the browning of foods through two chemical reactions: the Maillard reaction, which does not require an enzyme, and enzymatic […]
Use of Enzymes by the Food Industry to Test for Food Quality For this Food Use This Enzyme To Test For Fruits and vegetables Milk, dairy products, ham Eggs Peroxidase Alkalin phosphatase Acetylglucosaminidase Proper Heat Treatment Oysters Meat Malic enzyme Glutamate oxaloacetate Freezing and Thawing Meat, eggs Beans Acid phosphatase Catalase Bacterial contamination Potatoes Pears […]
While water is essential to the chemical reactions on which living things and many foods depend, it is also important for the life of microorganisms such as bacteria, molds and yeasts. The actions of these microorganisms on food cause deterioration and decay. Atmospheric humidity alone increases the likelihood of foods degenerating. For example, a relative […]